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Ancient Canal Builders - Overview
Ancient Canal Builders Page 1 2014 Ancient Canal Builders John M Jensen Ancient Canal Builders Page 2 Table of Contents Intro – Overview.................................................................................... 2 Ancient Canal Builders ......................................................................... 3 Florida Offshore Sunken Harbor H-1 ................................................... 4 Florida Offshore Sunken Harbor H-2 .................................................... 5 North Key Largo, Florida ...................................................................... 6 East Cedar Beach, NY ......................................................................... 7 Point of Woods, NY .............................................................................. 8 East Moriches, NY ................................................................................ 9 Accomac, VA ......................................................................................10 Newark, MD ........................................................................................ 11 Matamoros, Mexico ............................................................................12 Tampamachoco, MX ...........................................................................13 Ancient ICW ........................................................................................14 Holocene Sea Level Rise ...................................................................16 Tidal Shelf ...........................................................................................18 End of 3rd Meltwater Pulse ................................................................19 Storegga Event ...................................................................................20 Dogger Banks Inundation ...................................................................22 Bosporus Strait Breach .......................................................................23 Tsunami Debris ...................................................................................24 Niagara Falls .....................................................................................25 Minnesota Falls .................................................................................26 Windover Bog Culture ........................................................................27 Turnbull Ruins .....................................................................................30 The Bimini Harbor ...............................................................................31 Isle Royal Copper Mines ....................................................................32 Summary - Conclusion ......................................................................34 I have the entire website with live Google Earth Images available (356 MB) on a disk or flash drive. Ancient Canal Builders Page 3 Overview This journey started out with the discovery of a highly complex and technically advanced civilization, called the 'Ancient Canal Builders’, which existed on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the US, prior to 7,000 years ago. Remnant sunken harbors, channels and canals are very sophisticated construction projects, demonstrating a balance of engineering and construction capabilities that rival modern technologies. What we found was an entire network of canals and channels, mostly deteriorating into and under the existing water table, suggesting a very large, sophisticated, technically advanced culture built them. In addition, we were able to ascertain that a majority of the Intracoastal Waterway is in fact an ancient system, and only parts of it have been taken over and re-dredged for modern use. Proof of this concept is the channels and canals in Long Island Sound, NY and the sunken offshore harbors in Florida. Many of these canals are more than 300’ in width, many miles in length, and are sunken and degraded into the water table. Extensions of the ancient system exist as far as 400 miles into Central Mexico. Data based on ocean level rise, ice core readings, and geological core drill evidence from around the world; provide substantial evidence for a major earth changing event about 7,000 years ago. We are only now beginning to understand the magnitude and scope of that event, as well as beginning the understanding of the civilizations which fit into the period (Epoch) prior to the event. The purpose of this book is to provide evidence for that correlation, including evidence of pre- cataclysmic giant flora and fauna, including plants, trees, insects, giants, other hominids, dinosaurs, and flyers. As a civilization, we are just now beginning to look at global evidence of long past ancient cultures, and begin to collectively recognize that mute testimony in stone and other artifacts point to sophistication absolutely unknown to a Stone Age mentality. The precision of stone cutting and dressing on the Giza Plateau as well as the broken buildings of Puma Punku in Bolivia provide testimony to a lost technology that is at least as sophisticated as our own, a technology that probably included space flight. We will look at the facts that support a chronology that Dinosaurs and Giants lived well into the mid Holocene, and that evidence supports that position to the exclusion of all other explanations for the data and information. We will look at more than 40 DNA and Carbon 14 tests performed on un-fossilized dinosaur bones returning dates of between 12K and 42K years ago. In particular we will focus on the T-Rex hind limb discovered by Dr. Mary Schweitzer that contains “…elastic collagen and hemoglobin elements…” Either that dinosaur lived at most, between 12,000 and 15,000 years ago, and Science and Academia are grossly in error, or some biological or other fantastic miracle occurred to preserve “hemoglobin elements” across the 65 million years Science appends to the last extinction of dinosaurs. I prefer the first option; it is a lot more reasonable and rational than the fantastic stories presented by traditional Science and Academia. Ancient Canal Builders Page 4 Ancient Canal Builders The Ancient Canal Builders were a highly complex and technically advanced civilization that lived on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of North America, prior to 7,100 years ago. Spread out over an area from Long Island Sound, New J ersey, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, Florida, to Mexico, evidence of their existence and enormous size and range of their capabilities suggests they represent a population in access of 200-500 million people. The Ancient Canal Builders had very advanced canal building capabilities. Remnant channels and canals are very sophisticated construction projects, demonstrating a balance of engineering and construction capabilities that rival modern technologies. Ancient Canal Builders created and used several types of canal systems, but are most easily identified by their sunken offshore harbors and connecting canals. The Ancient Canal Builders were a seafaring or ocean-based complex society with natural resources, transportation, agriculture and aquaculture as their internal and external or Atlantic based trade system. Based on common sense, systems of controls, to included government, security, commerce, communication, entertainment, and other social structural systems, would have been required to function as a society in these numbers. The major feature of this dominant transportation style is the long distance, straight line canal, many over 300 feet wide, and some well over 85 miles long. Another major characteristic is the sunken harbors and connecting canals that appear to be much like our modern- 'near the ocean' industrial systems, which include underwater harbors and dock-like features. Based on the size and length of their massive engineering projects, like the Florida Harbor, H-1 requires a population base large enough to have ready resources to undertake massive building projects. Population densities around the Atlantic Rim would have the same relative levels, sug- gesting an Atlantic Dispersion population greater than 200-500 million prior to 7,100 BP. We, as a modern society, have taken over and currently use many of the canals and channels as our own modern ‘creations’. It is very likely that much of the current Inter Coastal Waterway all the way into Central Mexico are re-dredged sections of an earlier system. Many sunken harbors canal systems are entirely under current sea level at a depth between 6' and 15'. Based on known sea level rise during the Holocene that provides a date certain of 7,100 to 7,300 years ago for their demise or 'latest possible use date'. The diffusion and distribution of Atlantic rim based populations prior to a major catastrophic event, is postulated as the 'Atlantic Dispersion Theory'. Examples are the Windover Bog people of circa 7,300 years ago as well as the Ancient Canal Builders. The following examples of offshore harbors and canals are taken from our website. Ancient Canal Builders Page 5 Florida Offshore Sunken Harbor H-1 This harbor is located about 2.2 miles offshore in the open ocean. It rests on a high tidal shoulder beside a large land egress channel. Length of the main body of the harbor is something over 9,000’ to 10,000’, with a widened harbor to the left, and an additional 3,000' exit canal toward the open ocean. Based on harbors of similar sizes today, we can estimate the depth of the cut harbor to be 35' to 45' deep. The volume of material cut, transported and disposed was roughly 45,000,000 (forty five million) cubic yards. At an average cost in dollars today of about $12 per cubic yard, this project looks like the beginning of a colossal engineering project in the $538,000,000 (MILLION) dollar range At this level of material, a minimum of technical machinery including dredge cutters, piping, barges and a whole range of equipment would be required. Although mega projects of this size have been accomplished in the past, using manpower alone, (such as the great wall of China), nothing on this order has ever been shown to have been done in the cutting and dredging of harbors of this size, while at the same time being involved with several other like projects, as demonstrated by Harbor 'H-2', about 65 miles distant,, and others like sites. Based on casual observation alone, it is evident this harbor was not completed with manpower alone, but with some very sophisticated machinery and equipment. Ocean depth at the tidal shoulder (edge of the harbor) is estimated to be between 6’ and 9’ deep, but could be as much as 12’ to 15’ deep. Those depths place a date certain, based on Ocean Level Rise, of between 7,200 and 7,400 years before present. We think that this civilization was destroyed by a super mega cataclysm, and if so, it is entirely plausible, if not likely, that some residue artifacts in stone, pottery and possible other unknown materials, are preserved in the mud and silt at the bottom of this harbor. We intend to be the first to find out. We are NOT releasing location coordinates on this site pending our own expedition dive. If you are interested in joining the expedition to this site, please let us know. Ancient Canal Builders Page 6 Florida Sunken Offshore Harbor H-2 In addition to this amazing underwater artifact, there is an existing causeway or roadway that extends from the harbor edge northeast, terminating at the secondary tidal shoulder of the current shoreline. As a rough estimate, this structure as an engineering project would consist of cutting, dredging, removal and disposal of approximately 8,100,000 cubic yards of material. Total project cost in today’s dollars of roughly $6 per cubic yard of material means this project had a budget of just under $50 million dollars. Harbor 2, sits on the tertiary tidal shoulder and appears to be in the range of 6’ to 9’ below current mean tide level. If so, that means its relative build and use date had to be within a very tight window between 7,200 and 7,300 years ago. At that time, the Third Meltwater Pulse Ocean Level was rising at the rate of more than 5’ per 100 years. Since Ocean Rise is established to be slightly more than 5 feet over the last 7,000 years, an additional 3-5 would indicate a depth of 6-9’ to be roughly equivalent to 7,200 years ago. The road or causeway that extends from the harbor northeast to the shoreline is about 2.0 mile long, and is degraded and covered over with sand in several places. This section is more degraded closest to the harbor proper, then retains its original shape of the section closest to the shoreline. This harbor has many features similar to Harbor 1, which is about 65 miles distance; both are very near, or on the edge of a deep water channel that goes out through the continental shelf to the open ocean. Edges of the harbor edge or shoulder are currently estimated to be between 6' and 9' beneath mean tide ocean level. Its depth suggests it is contemporary with the Bimini Road as well as other Harbors and canals at this depth. Ocean level rise dating suggests this Harbor was inundated between 7,000 and 7,100 years ago. Ancient Canal Builders Page 7 North Key Largo, FL This site is a series of inlet canals that are grown over and silted in, eroding back into the landscape. The center canal is one of the largest (if older) ones found to date. It is about 2,700’ long to the end of the ‘silted in’ paddle head. The original width is about 350’ and the newer section is about 170’ wide. The old section of the south canal is about 445’ wide, and the newer section is about 220’ wide, the north canal is about 85’ wide. The curved S sections connecting the canals are completely silted in and grown over. To the right, an unused, unconnected cut canal goes out to open water. There is substantial berm around the open water cut canal, indicating it was built when the tidal shelf was above water. Of significance is the moat canal surrounding this complex. All indications are that this complex is one of the older shore based complex systems found to date. It certainly may not date to -7,000 ybp, but it is much older than the 200 odd years our modern culture has been settling the South Florida Keys. It may very well postdate the offshore Harbors. Berm soil samples need to be taken here for a relatively accurate C-14 dating sample. This complex appears to have two building and use periods, one that is less structured and has the appearance of being built on top of the old system. The original berm on this center canal includes the large rectangle paddle head. The second berm seems to have been cut out of the silted over section. It is not possible in this preview, to do justice to the many features of this complex, and much field work is required to make serious statements of potential purpose and function. I will agree this complex does not appear to support a 5' rise in ocean level, but it certainly could and would support a 1" plus raise, putting the date of this complex somewhere between 4,500 and 5,800 years ago. In any case it is not modern, meaning it was not built in the last 200 or so years of Florida expansion. There are many other shore based complexes in the keys that show at least a three tiered tidal shoulder that is about 2' deep Ancient Canal Builders Page 8 East Cedar Beach, NY Traces of a very old and degraded canal that crosses Cedar Island is clearly evident in the photo below. It goes out across the sand spit to open water. i.e. Long Island Sound. Ancient Canal Builders Page 9 Point of Woods, Long Island, NY The larger harbor on the left is about 1,125' in length and about 270' in width. That it is an egress or exit-entry canal is demonstrated by its very narrow width, at most about 25' wide, suggesting use of this harbor was for small, noncommercial watercraft. The smaller harbor to the right is about 335' in length and about 160' in width. Its egress canal is wider at about 60'. This harbor is too small to handle any small to medium (under 100') commercial or industrial shipping. It is more likely; both of these harbors had some kind of commercial connection at the time of their construction. Both are built on the secondary tidal plain, up against the secondary tidal shoulder. The tidal shoulder's sunken land edge is estimated to be about 6' deep. It is obvious these harbors have absolutely no connection to any current shore side use. And it is also obvious these harbors were constructed at substantial cost and must have had a reasonable cost-value for the expenditures. In general Corp of Engineer bid for just the larger harbor, if it were 20' deep, would mean an excavation of about 675,000 cubic yards, in today's bid dollars of about $8-$12 per cubic yard means the project has a value of about $6.7 Million. That is way too much money to spend without purpose or reason. Ancient Canal Builders Page 10 East Moriches, Long Island, NY This is an absolutely stunning piece of evidence. This is part of the Moriches channel, near the eastern end of Long Island. This unnamed lower center island has degraded, with aged sand spill covering over the deeper Moriches channel. J ust to the right, tidal flow and sand spill has completely degraded the channel. Sand spill from the small island to the right has overfilled the degraded channel. The depth here is very interesting, as it appears to be different and deeper than the secondary tidal shoulder, or at least the tertiary tidal shoulder, and maybe deeper. The long channel just above the lower island has been ‘filled in’ by erosion. The channel originally continued East where a secondary tidal shoulder is evidenced above the lower island. A further channel at a 90 degree angle runs north into an unused harbor. The most significant feature of this complex is the tidal wash to the right or East of the center island. This tide wash has silted in and covered over the underlying channel to a degree of nearly obliterating the channel. The suggestion of the tidal wash is that the lower ‘opening’ to the ocean is more recent than the long large East West channel, and that opening or breach caused the tidal wash action to eventually cover over or ‘silt in’ the long channel. In my opinion, the erosion and tidal wash at this location is proof positive this system was built long before our current use of this area. In addition, the lack of any dock or shore side use for such a large complex system is mute testimony to its ancient use and function. This is irrefutable evidence of the age of the Ancient Canals, channels and harbors on Long Island Sound. In following chapters we will look at and discuss an additional dozen locations in both the US and Mexico. Ancient Canal Builders Page 11 Accomac, VA This is a major channel, about 5 miles long, dredged from the ocean outlet north of here, to the delta estuary to the south. This channel is averages about 160 feet wide. The north ocean outlet seems to be completely silted over and filled in, assuring this channel is neither an ICW extension, or built by modern builders. There is no obvious outlet at the south end. The area does not appear to have commercial or industrial requirements for a channel of this nature, nor does it have any small craft requirements. This is a fairly rural area. This is a strong candidate for further site analysis. Overall depth here is about the same as the shallow offshore harbors in Long Island Sound, or about 5’ at mean water. This sound is a primary tidal shoulder and its existence is probably less than +or – 5,500 years old. As a construction project, this channel is more than 5 miles in length, with additional sections at both the north and south ends. It is about 160'' wide on average,, and approximately 20' deep, which equates to about 1,870,000 cubic yards per mile. In today's dollars this kind of new cut channel is bid out in Corp of Engineers projects at about $4 per cubic yard, for a total cost of about $7,480,000 per mile. In today's dollars, this 5 mile channel would cost about $37 MILLION to build. That is a substantial amount of money for a channel that starts nowhere, goes nowhere and serves no shore side purpose. This channel is part of the argument that most of the ICW is an older (ancient) system, and has been dredged and repurposed for modern use, leaving old sections like the above as mute testimony of the ancient nature of the system. Ancient Canal Builders Page 12 Newark, MD These are two very old and degraded docks or quays in rural Maryland. The longer one to the right is about 700’ long and about 65’ wide, and probably between 6’ - 9' deep. These were not built for local rural use, and are slightly overkill for small boat access, particularly because the exit or egress opening has not been cleaned out or re-dredged. Small craft access is very expensive to dig out of hard scrabble land, and in fact, extremely expensive. These canals represent about 80,000 cubic yards of material excavated at a rough estimate of allocated dollars in modern day budgets of $15 per cubic yard, dug, removed and disposed, at approximately $1,200,000 construction cost. That cost is probably significantly more than the value of the owned land facing it. Ancient Canal Builders Page 13 Matamoros, Mexico This canal, about 20 miles south of the Rio Grande, is about 24 miles long in a straight line from Matamoros, which faces the Mexico-US border. It has a split fan feature at its urban terminus, suggesting a commercial or industrial use. It is about 40' in width between two high berm banks, and expected to be about 5’ to 8' deep. In the city proper of Matamoros, this canal fans out into smaller feeder canals, that are also straight line, though smaller. This is a small 'system' that has degraded and silted in. Above, some areas of the canal have been completely eroded by raising sea levels. Though based on the erosion, water table could not have risen much over 1.5' to possibly 2', or the original canal would not be operable inland. That level of ocean rise suggests the canal's build and use date is not older than sometime between 3,500 and 5,800 years ago. Most of the canal is eroded and is completely filled in. Some areas still have some amount of open water. The erosion includes overgrown vegetation from the berm edges into the canal proper. This entire canal structure appears to be older than the post-Colonial period, and based on erosion patterns, and water table levels it could be as old as 5,000 years. Berm core drills will provide answers to build and use dates. This ocean break wall appears to be significantly eroded. Toward shore, the original canal has completely disappeared for about a mile under sand and other shore side buildup. This canal is a major anomaly, because it is so close to the Brownsville 'canal', and because it seems to have served some commercial or industrial purpose at one point, and is so completely eroded at the ocean side portion. Also it is not as large as other canals, so its width and depth could not service large shipping, but rather it is built to provide service to small commercial or medium sized personal or pleasure watercraft. If the canal's total length is 26 miles, at an average width of 40' and a depth of 9', original construction would have removed about 210,000 cubic yards of material per mile, or about 5.5 million cubic yards. At a cost of $8 per cubic yard, to complete the entire project, it would cost about $43.5 MILLION in today's dollars. Ancient Canal Builders Page 14 Tampamachoco, Mexico This canal is part of a complete system that starts about 85 miles north and continues south a couple of miles to Tuxpan. It is about 145' wide on average with a high berm on one side, and a smaller berm on the other. It is estimated to be about 20' to 25' in depth. In some places, the berm does not exist, so it must have been transported away from the site. In this location, the canal splits into two sections, with one going into what appears to be a former industrial or commercial port area. Now, there are very few beach front houses and none use the canal. On the Google Earth location above, follow the outline of this canal to its limits. This canal represents about 1,700,160 cubic yards of material moved. Most of this canal is cut through original land, and is more expensive to build than a dredged open water channel. This canal would be about $12-$14 a cubic yard in current Corp of Engineer bid dollars, or about $20.4 Million per mile, or $1.7 BILLION for the entire project. Even if it costs only half that, it is still a significant undertaking. This system starts about 375 miles south of the US-Mexico border, so it is unrealistic to assign its construction date to the modern re-dredging of the Inland Waterway. Most of the characteristics of this canal system look exactly like the older, sunken and degraded portions of the Gulf and East Coast's Inland Waterways. Ancient Canal Builders Page 15 The ICW - Intra Coastal Waterway The concept of a national, protected, north- south waterway was introduced in 1808 by Albert Gallatin, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury in his report to President Thomas J efferson. The report noted that “an inland navigation solution from Massachusetts to Georgia, that was 'principally, if not solely' interrupted by a mere four stretches of land - Cape Cod, a section of New J ersey between the Raritan and Delaware rivers, the peninsula between the Delaware River and the Chesapeake Bay, and the marshy tract between the Chesapeake Bay and the Albemarle Sound”. If the federal government would appropriate the necessary funds, Gallatin explained, to dredge new canals through just a mere four stretches of land, a sea vessel could travel by rivers, bays, sounds, and a handful of canals from Boston to Beaufort, North Carolina, on down to the Cape Fear River, then broken by a short ocean run the inland navigation could continue again inside the chain of barrier islands skirting the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. Secretary Gallatin estimated that the cost of the four canals would be $3 million. His entire scheme for roads and canals would cost an expected $20 million. By setting aside $2 million per year from the annual Treasury surplus (then in excess of $5 million), the whole project envisioned could be accomplished within ten (10) years. Delayed by foreign problems (the War of 1812 comes to mind) and further frustrated by domestic obstructions (President J efferson was not entirely sold on the idea), Gallatin's plan was never fully implemented. His concept of an Intracoastal Waterway never died, but the waterway ultimately came into being mostly due to local projects rather than centralized planning during the nineteenth century. And instead of taking ten years, its construction spanned more than a century. During that time, the railroads fought any development of the ICW, as it was not in their best interest to have a competing transportation system. Ancient Canal Builders Page 16 The Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, conceived by Secretary Gallatin in 1808, was not essentially completed until the 1930s - in the midst of the Great Depression. It is a hybrid creation of man comprised of many existing (although upgraded) river-ways, man-made canals, and existing sounds and bays. The waterway came into being through a series of local projects developed in expectation of local benefits. Today, commerce south of Norfolk is almost entirely domestic and mostly short haul. It is now used more for recreation than for commerce. And, it is no longer maintained to the width and depth as it was during the peak of its usage. In today's dollars, re-dredging an existing harbor or channel goes out for bid at about $1.6 million per mile for an 10' x 100' section. That is not new cut, or green construction, just re-dredging. New or green cut through existing land forms, costs on average about $3.5 million per mile. That's why Congress never authorized ANY budgets for waterway acts beyond 'gateway' canals. The facts are that the old ICW is an ancient system, and was here (and known) long before we settled North America, as defined by US Secretary Gallatin in his report. The ICW has been 'dredged' out and re-used, but it was by no means 'new construction' over most of its entire length. A simple review of Google Earth will establish those facts clearly. In addition, US Engi- neering technology never had the skills or abilities (up to and including today) that could transfer 'island pile' tailing from a new cut ripper to island dump’ locations at half mile intervals. We can't do it with bucket cranes and barges, yet the entire length of the ICW is mostly 'island pile' residue rather than shore side 'berm' dumps. Ancient Canal Builders Page 17 Holocene Sea Level Rise To review our material in any detail, it is important to understand the significance of sea level raise during the current Holocene epoch. Since the Holocene Start, or about 15,000 years ago, sea levels around the world have raised an average of 125 meters or 410'. About two thirds of that increase, or about 260', occurred over a 5,000 year period between 12,000 and 7,000 years ago. Images created by Robert A. Rohde / Global Warming Art The data represented on the above chart, has been collected from 8 locations around the globe. Variations in sea level rise from the Western Atlantic and the South Pacific are most notable. The figures are based on data from Fleming et al. 1998, Fleming 2000, & Milne et al. 2005. These pa- pers collected data from various reports and adjusted them for subsequent vertical geologic mo- tions, primarily those associated with post-glacial continental and hydroisostatic rebound. The first refers to deformations caused by the weight of continental ice sheets pressing down on the land, the latter refers to uplift in coastal areas resulting from the increased weight of water associated with rising sea levels. It should be noted that because of the latter effect and associated uplift, many islands, especially in the Pacific, exhibited higher local sea levels in the mid Holocene than they do today. Uncertainty about the magnitude of these corrections is the dominant uncertainty in many measurements of Holocene scale sea level change. The black curve is based on minimizing the sum of squares error weighted distance between this curve and the plotted data. It was constructed by adjusting a number of specified tie points, typi- cally placed every 1 kyr and forced to go to 0 at the modern day. A small number of extreme out- liers were dropped. It should be noted that some authors propose the existence of significant short-term fluctuations in sea level such that the sea level curve might oscillate up and down about this ~1 kyr mean state. Some 'leveling', or trigger event just over 7,000 years ago, flattened out that rapid increase in sea level. The following chart demonstrates the rapid raise and leveling-off effect. Ancient Canal Builders Page 18 The following illustration is a Holocene Sea Level chart plotting sea level over the past 9,000 years. Images created by Robert A. Rohde / Global Warming Art Readings to determine ocean levels at specifics periods of time, have been taken in 8 different global locations. Of significance, is the J amaica or 'Caribbean Plain' sea level plot shown in light green. We are using the J amaica plots, because the plot readings are the closest to our Atlantic and Gulf coasts. This J amaica plots show an average sea level increase of about 5' between 7,000 and 5,000 ybp. From that point forward, sea level has been relatively stable, with less than 1' increase. There appears to have been some 'trigger' event at just before 7,000 ybp that literally stopped the rapid sea level raise. Over the next 1,000 years, sea level raises 'flattened out to about 3' at 6,000 ybp. From that point to 5,000 ybp, the raise was less than 2', and in the last 5,000 years, sea lev- el has been relatively constant. Sea Levels have risen about 5' +or -, over the last 7,000 years in the areas depicted in this study. Using sea level as a dating mechanism is valid when a non-natural occurring harbor, canal, channel, feature, contour or artifact situated on a tidal shelf can be identified as having been built or created when that area was above sea level. 1. Underwater 'harbors' not connected to any current shoreline. Recognizing the purpose for a 'harbor' is to connect a shore based area with major, if not ocean going water based transpor- tation systems. 2. Underwater canals, harbors, or channels that show a substantial 'berm' or residue along its edge. This feature is a result of dredging where the residue of refuse is discharged along the bank. This does not occur with an underwater dredging process, where the refuse is piped from the dredge head, generally on a barge, or floating above water, to a refuse or 'tailing' pile on shore, often at some distance from the dredge rig. 3. Channels and canals that have major sections both above and below sea level. Ancient Canal Builders Page 19 Tidal Shelf Images created by John Jensen / AncientCanalBuilders.com Ocean level, when stable for some period of time develops a 'tidal shoulder' as a reaction to wa- ter movement and tidal raise and fall. Given enough time and a relative stable shoreline, the tidal shoulder outline is sometimes very clear, other times it is less clear. Depth between shoulders provides an accurate estimate of tidal plain life cycle, or length of time between the cycle use dates of the upper and lower tidal shoulder. In the Holocene Sea Level rise, (J amaica plot) tertiary or third tidal shoulder ('C') is estimated to be 5' in depth. That depth is precisely the edge of the 'leveling off' of the early Holocene rapid ocean rise, as measured by the J amaica results, where 7,000 years ago the ocean level stabi- lized at about 1.5 meters or about 5' lower than it is today. The Secondary Tidal Shoulder ('B') is estimated to be about 2' in depth. That depth coincides with the second 'leveling off' of sea level rise at about 5,900 years ago. The Secondary Tidal Plain co- vers a period of about 800 years, and levels off to the Primary Tidal Plain, ('A') which is the cur- rent water table, at about 5,100 years ago. The difference between any two water tables in terms of depth defines the 'life cycle' of that tidal plain. Any non-natural artifacts or construction is dated to no earlier than the earlier tidal shoulder. Most information in this book is supported by artifacts and construction on the Secondary Tidal Plain level, indicating its build and use dates to be no earlier than the Tertiary Tidal Shoulder of 7,200 ybp, and no later than the Secondary Tidal Shoulder of 5,900 years ago. Ancient Canal Builders Page 20 End of the Third Meltwater Pulse Images created by John Jensen / AncientCanalBuilders.com In addition to the events listed above, there are many other datasets and information, as well as artifacts that support the 7,000 year ago cataclysm date. These include frozen Mastodons in Northern Russia and the North American Arctic, as well as piles of disparate animal bones on Wrangell Island. The most important evidence is of a lost civilization on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America is called 'The Ancient Canal Builders'. This period is the 'Current Epoch' that began with a Super Mega Cataclysm just over 7,000 years ago. We will show many artifacts and other evidence to substantiate that date as one of the pivotal periods in geological and human history. The Bosporus Straight was breeched about 7,100 ybp, coincidental to the Storegga event. In 1997, Ryan and Pitman, though unaware of the Storegga data, presented astonishing evidence ".. that a drowning event on the Pontic Basin resulted from a marine transgression into a vastly sunken lake...", and designated 7,100 BP as the date of the flooding event. Galveston Bay, TX. An event occurred in Galveston Bay between 7,300-7,100 years ago, in which the boundary between river and bay receded about 35 kilometers upstream. (That is 22 miles inland) Michilla Bay, Chile has a Tsunami debris field about 6-7 meters high, about a mile inland, dated to 7,100 ybp. Ancient Canal Builders Page 21 The Storegga Event The following data, information, evidence, and artifacts tell the story of a Super Mega Cataclysm that occurred 7,000 years ago. The event is named after the Storegga landslide complex, a world-class geographic feature and one of the largest areas of known slope failure anywhere in the world. The Second Storegga Slide was large enough to have caused a mega tsunami around 7,100 years ago that triggered widespread coastal flooding in Scotland, Norway and other coastlines bordering the eastern North Atlantic and North Sea. (4) For example, at a number of localities near the eastern coast of Scotland is a sand deposit as deep as 25 feet above sea level that has been dated to about 7,000 years ago. One researcher ion 1989 proposed that this sand is a mega-tsunami deposit resulting from the sediment displacement associated with the Second Storegga Slide. Bathymetry and acoustic seafloor imagery of the Storegga Slide have identified seafloor depressions or “pockmarks” up to 1500 feet in diameter and less than 15 feet in depth, which are associated with the presence of gas. (6) The pockmarks are consistent with the remnants of old methane gas explosion sites that triggered the landslides at Storegga. If this event is part of a much larger global event, its effect on the greater global ocean upheaval seems unlikely to be predictable based on standard tsunami computer ‘model’. Along with other simultaneous cataclysmic activity, this event is so large it terms of mass slope failure, it is difficult to estimate how the compound super tsunami might react. It seems likely that the wave crest created by the slide 'run- out', which was some 800 km in length, passing through 3500 m of water depth, was magnitudes higher than the debris field deposited on the surrounding coasts. Debris fields in Scotland as an example, at about 7-8 m suggests the Tsunami crest might have been significantly over 150 meters. Ancient Canal Builders Page 22 The Storegga Event (cont.) Tsunami debris fields have been found on the East Atlantic Coast and the Gulf of Mexico with inland debris deposits up to 40 miles inland at Galveston and Mobile. The fact of a Tsunami debris field in Chile, dated to the same period as the 2 nd Storegga event suggests the trigger mechanism was global rather than local to the North Atlantic. This is just part of a worldwide super-cataclysm that rocked the Earth at that time. The magnitude of the earthquake tremors around the North Atlantic Basin, and the ensuing Tsunami is beyond imagination. The effect could account for most 'Flood' legends around the Atlantic Rim. The following documents cover the Storegga Landslide in scientific detail. The Storegga Sl ide: T. Bugge, R. H. Belderson and N. H. Kenyon, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences Vol. 325, No. 1586 (J un. 13, 1988), pp. 357-388 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/38068?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101531061453 Storegga References: University of Edinburgh, School of Geosciences http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/s0456225/Reference.html The Catastrophic Final Fl ooding of Doggerland by the Storegga Slide Tsunami; Bernhard Weninger, Rick Schulting, Marcel Bradtmöller, Lee Clare, Mark Collard, Kevan Edinborough, J ohanna Hilpert, Olaf J öris, Marcel Niekus6, Eelco J . Rohling, Bernd Wagner http://www.academia.edu/437214/The_Catastrophic_Final_Flooding_of_Doggerland_by_the_Stor egga_Slide_Tsunami Suburban Energy Management Project http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=301 US Department of Energy and Office of Fossil Energy: “A Strategy for Methane Hydrates Research and Development,” p. 10, at: http://www.netl.doe.gov/scngo/NaturalGas/hydrates/... ; accessed November 26, 2005. University of Wisconsin: “Chemical of the Week: Methane” at: http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/methane/metha...; accessed November 26, 2005. The Tsunami Initiative: “Tsunami Risk in the Northeast Atlantic: The Storegga Slides.” At: http://www.nerc-bas.ac.uk/tsunami-risks/html/HSE1S...; accessed November 26, 2005. Dan Evans: The BGS deep-two boomer meets the Storegga Slide” in The Edinburgh Geologist, Issue no. 28, Autumn 1995, available at: http://www.edinburghgeolsoc.org/z_28_04.html accessed November 26, 2005. J P Foucher: “Fluid Escape Structures on the Storegga Slope.” Geophysical Research Abstracts. European Geophysical Society, 2002. Available at: http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/11149/EAE03-J ... ; accessed November 26, 2005. “Hydro” website: “Boiling tea with gas from chilly seas” at: http://www.hydro.com/en/press_room/features/ormen_... ; accessed November 26, 2005.. Ancient Canal Builders Page 23 Doggerland At, or shortly before the time of the last Storegga Slide, a land bridge known to archaeologists and geologists as “Doggerland” existed, linking Great Britain with Denmark and the Netherlands across what is now the southern North Sea. This area is believed to have included a coastline of lagoons, marshes, mudflats, and beaches, and to have been a rich hunting, fowling and fishing ground populated by Mesolithic human cultures. Although Doggerland was physically submerged through a gradual rise in sea level, it has been suggested that coastal areas of both Britain and mainland Europe, extending over areas which are now submerged, would have been inundated by a tsunami triggered by the Storegga Slide. Initially, it is believed to have been the home to tens of thousands of people before it disappeared underwater. This event would have had a catastrophic impact on the contemporary Mesolithic population, and separated cultures in Britain from those on the European mainland. Like all land bridges, Doggerland seems to have been a pretty busy thoroughfare for ancient hunters and gatherers. But archaeologists hardly gave it a thought until 2002, when a small group of British researchers laid hands on seismic survey data collected by the petroleum industry in the North Sea. Dating Tsunami Deposits The accurate dating of the Storegga Slide Tsunami represents a major challenge to established radiocarbon methodology. As already recognized by Bondevik et al. (2006), the accurate radiocarbon dating of palaeotsunamis is problematic for three reasons: (1) erosion of the underlying strata; (2) redeposition of organic material within the tsunami deposit, and (3) redeposition of organic matter following the tsunami event. Due to the ‘problematic’ nature of ‘Calibrated’ aging, we have chosen, for this work to retain the ‘Actual’ 14c dates recorded in the second column, where they, in fact match quite precisely with similar actual non-calibrated 14c dates at the Storegga and Bosporus sites. Ancient Canal Builders Page 24 Bosporus Strait Breach Beach of the Bosporus Strait and the seawater incursion of the Black Sea occurred contiguous with the Storegga Landslide. In an introduction to his book, 'The Black Sea Event', author Valentina Yangon-Homback referenced Ryan and Pittman, geologists from Columbia University, who proposed the Black Sea flood evidence, suggested to the research team that a drowning event in the Pontic Basin may have resulted from a marine transgression into a vast shrunken lake. It appears that this inundation subsequently deposited a uniform drape of marine mud upon the former terrestrial surface, creating a sapropel or putrefied muddy layer equally thick in depression, as on crests and dunes with no sign of landward-directed onlap of the sedimentary layers in the drape (Ryan et. al. 2003). The '14C' age determinations documented a simultaneous sub aqueous colonization of the terrestrial surface by marine mollusks at 7,100 ybp, and this date was assigned to the flooding event. In 'Traces of Ancient Habitation Found Beneath Black Sea off the coast of northern Turkey, 311 feet (95 meters) below the Black Sea', explorer Robert Ballard says he has discovered remains of an ancient structure that was apparently flooded in a deluge of biblical proportions. The find may lend credence to a theory that a Black Sea flood gave rise to the Noah story and other flood legends. Ballard, famous for finding Titanic, confirmed that his research team, sponsored in part by the National Geographic Society, has identified a wooden structure on a gently sloping shelf near the convergence of two submerged ancient river beds. The wooden structure is the only building sighted so far during the expedition. As the search continues, the team hopes that additional finds will suggest a settlement pattern along the ancient coastline. Using sonar profiles, Ballard's team has identified more than 50 potential search areas similar to the site of the structure. When viewed as a local or regional event, the Bosporus Strait breach was a significant catastrophic event, particularly to the inhabitants of the Black Sea basin. If the Bosporus breach event and the Storegga event dates are specifically related in time however, as they appear to be, then it is a high probability that the trigger mechanism for both regional catastrophes was at least a single global event. With two significant regional catastrophes related in time it seems quite obvious that some super catastrophic event occurred that was the primary cause of both the Storegga Landslide and the Bosporus Strait Breach. Ancient Canal Builders Page 25 . Tsunami Debris – Michilla Bay, Chili This is a photo of an elevated Tsunami dump deposit at Michilla Bay, northern Chile, occurring around 7,000 years ago, coincidentally with the sea level reaching its present level following the Holocene marine transgression; the ocean is to the right. The top of the terrace stands 6m to 8m above sea level and about 1 km inland. This deposit is over 5 m thick, lies 7 m above present sea level, and consists of a massive bed of course sand interspersed with cobbles and large unbroken shells. Isolated boulders are scattered throughout the bottom of the deposit. Dating of the shell places the event at 7,000 years ago when sea level reached its present level following the Holocene marine transgression. Tsunami Debris – Galveston Bay J ohn Anderson, the W. Maurice Ewing Chair in Oceanography and Professor of Earth Science at Rice University at Houston, discussing Galveston Bay, said "The geological record shows that sediment flowing into the bays have tended to just keep pace with rising sea levels over the past 10,000 years. The flooding events mark points in time when this delicate balance was upset. The most dramatic event occurred in Galveston Bay between 7,300-7,100 years ago. In that geological instant, the boundary between the river and bay receded about 35 kilometers upstream. At that time, the head of the bay was somewhere north of I-10, but sediments flowing back into the bay from the Trinity River pushed that back south to the present location, creating Lake Anahuac in the process." Underwatertimes.com News Service - October 23, 2006 Ancient Canal Builders Page 26 Birth and Age of Niagara Falls The falls of the Niagara River have regressed upstream from Lewiston, on Lake Ontario, and have created a gorge about seven miles long. U.S. Geological Survey records indicate that the entire Falls are regressing at an average of about 2.2 feet per year. The Canadian Falls section regresses much faster at about 2.8 feet per year. The edge of the Falls is much longer at its ledges than the width of the gorge through which it has cut. The flow of water over the ledges is now much shallower, with correspondingly fewer pressures than existed, say, 3,000 years ago, when the Falls were in the gorge. Consequently, the regression rate of the erosion and undermining of the cataract is less now than during the early period of gorge existence. The regression speed during the creation of the gorge was equivalent to the regression of the Canadian Falls, where the speed, weight and pressure of the cascade are more concentrated than the average over the entire Falls. The Commissioners of the State Reservation at Niagara Falls employed Robert S. Woodward in 1891 to estimate the time required for the creation of the Niagara River gorge. Woodward was a man of superior competence as well as unquestioned integrity and later became president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. Woodward reported that less than 8,000 years had been required to cut the gorge of the Niagara River. Woodward noted that “Assuming an average regression speed of 2.2 feet per year, which is one quarter foot per year faster than the regression of the Canadian Falls, we obtain 7,800 years for the approximate life span of the Niagara Gorge”. However, the Falls at Lewiston were approximately 280 feet higher than they are now. Consequently, with a significantly higher regression rate in its early cycle, and a slower current rate, estimated age of the Niagara Falls Gorge is about 7,000 years. J ames Hall, a New York State Geologist, pointed out that the southward dip of the rock strata from Lewiston to the Falls is about 25 feet per mile, with the river channel sloping in the opposite direction at the rate of 15 feet per mile. As a result of this change in the height of the Falls, the rates of speed of erosion and cutback of the upstream retreat of the Falls has not been constant, but significantly variable. It has depended on the height of the Falls and on the nature of the rocks being cut. Geologists have also identified two additional river beds at higher levels than the current Niagara River. The highest terrace is 24 feet above the river, and the lower twelve feet lower, with identical fresh water shells found at both terraces extending to the whirlpool. This suggests that Goat Island was under water at some earlier Epoch, which tends to support successive world cataclysms. A careful record of this formation and one of the first was made by Sir Charles Lyell, and is recorded in his book 'Travels in North America' in 1841-42. These geological phenomena require, for a rational explanation, a careening globe with attendant world cataclysms. Other discoveries of Lyell at Niagara also seem to require changes in the earth's Axis of Figure for their explanation. Ancient Canal Builders Page 27 Birth and Age of Minnesota Falls The Mississippi River like the Niagara River provides a telltale geological time scale showing us how long the earth's surface has remained essentially as it is today. The upstream retreat of the Falls of St. Anthony at Minneapolis, Minnesota, created a gorge between seven and eight miles long and about a quarter of a mile wide. The gorge provides a cutoff from the older Mississippi River bed. Early explorers - first Hennepin and later Carver, provided information regarding the locations of the Falls, and from these records we know that the Falls regressed, up to 1856, at an estimated rate of about five feet per year. Approximately 8,000 years elapsed from the time when the Falls started at Fort Snelling, to their current location at the north end of the gorge. The Falls of St. Anthony were 110 feet above the current river bed when they were located at Fort Snelling. Now the Falls are less than 40 feet high. From these facts it is logical to assume that there was a greater amount of undercutting of the Falls when they were higher with the flow landing with much greater force on the base rocks, causing faster upstream regression during the earlier stages of the Falls than during its later stages. (The probable profiles of the Falls at various times in the past, with plan and elevations, are shown in Geological Survey, Folio 201, Minneapolis St. Paul, Minn.) Based on variable rates of regression, a correction factor of 9% to 13% should be factored to interpret the time scale correctly; giving an approximate 7,000 years for the life span of the gorge. The Falls of St. Anthony as well as Niagara Falls both give us a relative time scale of about 7,000 years as the age of their gorges. These dates coincide with the Storegga Landslide and Bosporus Strait breach, indicating a much greater overall cataclysm at an approximate date of slightly more than 7,000 ybp. Ancient Canal Builders Page 28 Windover Bog People The Windover Bog site is an early Archaeological burial site near Titusville, FL. Skeletal remains of 168 people, about half adult and half children were discovered in a marsh pond during construction excavation. The skeletal remains were remarkably well preserved due to the low to neutral acidity in the pond, and the characteristics of peat formation. Many of the skulls contained remarkably well preserved brain tissue, and in some instances, complete well formed, though shrunken brains, enabling Scientists to perform DNA sequencing of the remains. Windover represents the largest collection of Human Remains and Artifacts from the Archaic Period ever found. The remains include bones of males and females of all ages from infants to about 60 years, a total of 168 individuals. The average height of adult males was 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm). Skeletons showed the effects of disease and healed wounds, allowing forensic studies. Many bones of children showed interrupted growth, perhaps due to severe disease or malnutrition. Osteoporosis was evident in older women. Adults of both genders exhibited a high incidence of osteoarthritis, also a continuing problem for humans. Some skeletons showed wounds that were likely the cause of death. The pelvis of one man had a bone spear point embedded in it. Others had severe skull fractures. Children and teenagers were buried with more grave goods than were adults, indicating the high value placed on children. Skeletons included one of a boy aged about 15 who had spina bifida. All of his bones were found to have been fragile. One of his feet was missing and the stump of his lower leg had healed. As his spinal condition almost certainly meant the boy was paralyzed below the waist, this find was important for assessing the society's commitment to ensure his survival for 15 years in a hunter-gatherer community. While some of the remains were mixed, about 100 undisturbed burials were found with fully articulated bones, in roughly the correct position and relationship in the body. Most were buried in a flexed position, on their left sides, and with their heads toward the west. The bodies were held down in the graves by sharpened stakes. The bodies were buried in clusters, in five or six episodes of short duration that were scattered over a thousand years. Thirty-seven of the graves contained woven fabrics, indicating that the bodies had been wrapped for burial. In late 1984 the archaeologists discovered that brain tissue had survived in many of the skulls. Lumps of greasy, brownish material were found in several skulls when they were opened for examination. Suspecting that this was brain tissue, the researchers sent the intact skulls for X-ray, CAT scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which showed recognizable brain structures. In addition, cell structures were seen under a microscope. At least 90 of the recovered bodies had brain tissue that survived, due to the preservative effects of the peat. The state of preservation of the brain tissues indicated that the bodies were buried in the peat within 24 to 48 hours after death. Ancient Canal Builders Page 29 Windover Bog People (cont.) This preservation allowed researchers to sequence DNA from the brains. Gut contents were found with many of the burials. These included seeds of wild grapes, elderberries and prickly pear fruit, often in large quantities. The people's teeth were worn down early in life, presumably from sand in food, but very few had cavities. Many artifacts that were deposited with the bodies were also preserved. Archaeologists at this site were able to recover a total of 86 pieces of fabric from 37 graves. These included seven different textile weaves, which appeared to have been used for clothing, bags, matting, and possibly blankets and ponchos. Numerous other artifacts, such as atlatls and projectile points, were also found at Windover. The occupants of Windover hunted animals, fished, and gathered plants. They used bottle gourds for storage, which comprise the earliest evidence for vegetable container storage discovered in North America. Animal bones and shells found in the graves indicated that the people ate white-tailed deer, raccoon, opossum, birds, fish and shellfish. Windover is one of a number of archaic period sites in Florida with underwater burials in peat. Similar burials occurred at Little Salt Spring 5,200 to 6,800 years ago, Bay West (in Collier County) 5,940 to 6,840 years ago, and Republic Grove (in Hardee County) 5,690 to 6,470 years ago. Stakes were driven into the peat through fabrics wrapped around bodies at Windover. Similar stakes were found associated with burials at Bay West and Republic Grove. The stakes may have been used to help hold the bodies underwater. There were also burials (although not in peat) in the sinkhole at Warm Mineral Springs, dating as much as 12,000 years ago. Robin Brown notes in connection with these underwater burials that many Native American groups have a tradition that spirits of the dead are blocked by water. William McGoun suggests that a "water mortuary cult" may have been widespread in southern Florida from Paleo-Indian times into the historic period. As late as 1,500 to 2,000 years ago, bundled, de-fleshed bones were stored on a wooden platform set in the middle of a pond at Fort Center. Windover Pond is one of a number of sites in Florida excavated since 1970 that have led to a major reassessment of the Archaic period in Florida. J erald T. Milanich states that Windover has provided "unprecedented and dramatic" information about early Archaic people in Florida, and that the Windover site may be "one of the most significant archaeological sites ever excavated." Ancient Canal Builders Page 30 Windover Bog People (cont.) Conclusions: The Windover Bog People, dating from 9,000 to 7,000 years ago, appear to be contemporary or slightly earlier predecessor to the Ancient Canal Builders. Their DNA and Haplogroup sequence tests indicate they are of European rather than Native American ancestry. Their close proximity and DNA linage almost certainly suggests they along with the Ancient Canal Builders and the Michigan Copper miners were related to an Atlantic Rim colonization from a central Atlantic and/or European source. REFERENCES Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windover_Archaeological_Site Photos from: The Windover Archaeological Research Project, http://www.nbbd.com/godo/history/windover/ Video from Youtube http://www.youtube.com/embed/vbayBEbIEwc Brown, Robin C. (1994). Florida's First People: 12,000 Years of Human History. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press. ISBN 1-56164-032-8 McGoun, William E. (1993). Prehistoric Peoples of South Florida. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0686-2 Milanich, J erald T. (1994). Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1273-2 Milanich, J erald T. (1998). Florida's Indians from Ancient Times to the Present. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1599-5 Richardson, J oseph L.. "The Windover Archaeological Research Project". North Brevard Business Directory. Retrieved 3 December 2011. Ancient Canal Builders Page 31 Turnbull Ruins The Turnbull Ruins are made out of coquina rocks, and overlook the water in New Smyrna Beach. It's believed that during the colonization period (1766-1777), Andrew Turnbull attempted to build his personal mansion on the coquina foundation. However the work was never completed. The true origination of the ruins is unknown. I include these ruins because they are not far from the Windover Bog People burials, and it is just as rational to think the builders of this structure were related to the Windover Bog Mummies, as well as the builders of the Bimini Road as it is to assume they could only be from a post-colonial period. It is just as likely the builders were related to the larger Ancient Canal Builder populations as well as the builders of the original large offshore harbors. I am certain that the 2nd tier upper wall was built at a later time on what was, at the time, an already ancient structure. The 2nd tier is fundamentally different in design and scope, and includes the upper level stone stairway. This location is close to my current home, so it has been quite simple to spend some serious time studying this structure. Ancient Canal Builders Page 32 Bimini Harbor To be developed from Dr. Little’s paper. This is probably 2 pages long, and if so, the TOC has to be edited. Ancient Canal Builder information is based on Google Earth public domain satellite images. Source documentation for any publish papers or documents is referenced with the relevant information. Ancient Canal Builders Page 33 Isle Royale Copper Mining - Upper Peninsula, MI Evidence exists of mining colonies at Michigan's Isle Royale and Keweenaw Peninsula where copper ore was extracted. The second largest island archipelago on the Great Lake is "Isle Royale” which was earlier known as "Copper Island". To the Ojibway it is "Minong" meaning, "a good place to live". Scientists have been exploring multiple, massive "native (pure) copper" mines on Ojibway land there. They have dated wood foundations in the mines to six thousand years ago. According to Morrisseau, the Ojibway have been there for at least 12,000 years. In this place where trout, whitefish, sturgeon, herring, suckers, pike, woodland caribou, beaver and loons were plentiful was the world's richest treasury of pure copper. Although there are about 5000 pit mines on Isle Royale alone, outside of some cairns and slab rock ruins, there is little to help pin down these miners. Miles upon miles of open pit and closed tunnel copper mines are across the area. Many of the closed tunnels are well constructed and reinforced using similar mining techniques to our modern world. About 5000 mines were discovered in an area that is roughly 200 kilometers long and five to ten kilometers wide. The area mined on Isle Royale measures 60 to 80 kilometers. If all the mines were placed in one consecutive row, it would measure eight kilometers long by eight meters wide by ten meters deep. Every mine that has opened in the past 200 years, showed some previous prehistoric mining activity. This included mines where the copper ore did not protrude to the surface, showing evidence of prehistoric miners' advanced knowledge to identify subterranean ores. Sites that showed obvious evidence of ancient mining were in modern times considered good omens as they were often proved to be the best sites to find large copper veins. Curiously, North American Indian mounds have been found to contain copper sheets made in the shape of animal hides. Called "reels," their function, if any, is unknown. The reels do, however, resemble oddly shaped copper ingots common in European Bronze Age commerce. Their peculiar shape earned these ingots the name “oxhides” and has been found in Bronze Age shipwrecks, and are even said to be portrayed on wall paintings in Egyptian tombs. The standardized hide-like shape, with its four convenient handles, was useful in carrying and stacking the heavy ingots. Could the reels from the North American mounds have been copied from the oxhides? It is tempting to speculate that the Copper Culture miners were actually an Atlantic rim colony. Ancient Canal Builders Page 34 Isle Royale Copper Mining (cont.) If the Ancient Canal Builders built canals that would provide navigation for very large ocean going ships, it follows that those ships would and probably did travel to other places such as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to acquire copper as a resource for the Colonials of the period. If the copper mining area of the Upper Peninsula was not affected by the Super Mega Tsunami of 7,100 ybp, then the location and availability of the natural resources at this location could have continued to have been exploited by derivative cultures that retained a memory of the copper resource and its location. There is some evidence on Isle Royale on the north portion of the island of a manmade harbor and a possible dock about 500 feet long. Ojibway legends describe the mines as being worked by “light skinned men”, who were able to identify the mines by throwing magical stones on the ground, which made the ores that contained copper ring like a bell.\ An elongated skull was unearthed in a Copper Island burial mound. No other data available. References: (Sodders, Betty; "Who Mined American Copper 5,000 Years Ago?" Ancient American, 1:28, September/October 1993.) A Short History of Copper Mining: http://www.exploringthenorth.com/cophistory/cophist.html Frontiers of Anthropology: http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.com/2012/02/lake-superior- mines-old-copper-culture.html Michigan’s Copper Country: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/CMG92_301731_7.pdf Ancient Canal Builders Page 35 Summary – Evidence of the Event The Atlantic Rim colonies were completely destroyed by a Super Mega disaster, almost exactly 7,000 years ago. This disaster was part of a global catastrophe that may have included a partial Pole Shift and an increase in the Solar Year from a 288 day solar year to a 360 day solar rotation. This chapter is a partial list of the consequences, reactions and effects of the Event. At almost exactly 7,000 years ago, the 3 rd Meltwater Pulse abruptly ended, causing ocean levels to stabilize for the first time in 4,000 years. During the 3 rd Meltwater Pulse between 11.200 and 7,000 years ago, ocean levels had risen nearly 195 feet. Following the mega disaster, the ocean levels around the Gulf of Mexico and Florida have risen about 5 feet. (Almost all of that 5 foot increase occurred between 7,000 and 5,000 years ago. One of the primary pieces of evidence of the disaster is the Second Storegga Methane Gas eruption, a subsurface landslide in an area more than 600 miles in length and 70 miles wide, located between Denmark and Iceland. The Super Disaster caused a global conflagration, destroying almost all evidence of previous civilizations around the Atlantic Basin Rim, including the Ancient Canal Builders, The Windover People, the Copper miners in Upper Michigan, and others groups on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America. The Mega Cataclysm and the resulting Storegga landslide was on such a massive scale, that other land masses near close subduction areas could have been affected and may have subsided or become inundated to a depth of hundreds to thousands of feet as a contiguous part of the initial landslide. Although the Mega Disaster could certainly account for an inundation of a large land mass, I do not claim that land mass to be the well-known ‘Atlantis’. The effected land mass very well could have been Doggerland, and the Dogger Banks which were inundated and finally sank beneath the waves at about the same time, flooding the land bridge between Europe and England. Though Doggerland and Storegga Tsunami c14 dating is questioned, we adhere to actual rather than ‘calibrated dates’ centered around 7,100 years ago as the most likely actual date of occurrence. The Bosporus Straight was breeched about 7,100 ybp, coincidental to both events. In 1997, Ryan and Pitman, though unaware of the Storegga data, presented astonishing evidence ".. that a drowning event on the Pontic Basin resulted from a marine transgression into a vastly sunken lake...", and designated 7,100 BP as the date of the flooding event. Galveston Bay, TX. An event occurred in Galveston Bay between 7,300-7,100 years ago, in which the boundary between river and bay receded about 35 kilometers upstream. (That is 22 miles inland). Michilla Bay, Chile has a Tsunami debris field about 6-7 meters high, about a mile inland, dated to 7,100 ybp. Niagara Falls and Minnesota Falls are regression dated to 7,000 years ago as their most likely ‘creation’ date. The Windover Bog People, living in Florida are a derivative European group, with a higher based technology culture than is previously known in the Americas. They had machine woven textiles, and a social-cultural complex that included sophisticated burial processes. We will look at other events, features, artifacts and anomalies that are dated specifically to the Last Great Cataclysm, 7000 years ago. This is generally new data and information and does not include very much information and data that arguably is of pre-cataclysm origin. This book started out as a single chapter has grown to look at hard artifacts that can be evaluated via 14c dating or in some cases, DNA tests. Further books will detail information and events regarding civilizations, cultures, calendars, ocean rise, cosmology, and artifacts that pre-date the 7000 years ago cataclysm, focusing on the several cataclysms that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene and the Holocene Start about 15,000 years ago. J ohn J ensen, Ancient Canal Builders and Earth Epochs - 2014